Causes Of Dropout At Primary Level In Peshawar Education Essay
This study aimed to seek the reason for male college students’ dropout at primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were. (a) to study the teacher challenges and attitude about dropout, (b) to look for the factors which reason dropout (c) to study the Govt. strategy about dropout and (d) to supply suggestion to overcome this problem and improve literacy rate.
For choosing the easy random sampling strategy was used. The experts was selected the ten (10) colleges of F.R. Peshawar Asho khel. The research Analysis was descriptive in nature. Three kind of questionnaire were prepared one for instructor, second for pupils and third for father and mother, after that researcher were collected data after that tabulated, analyzed and interpreted in the percentage technique.
On the basis of analysis it had been concluded that most teachers seen that teachers were responsible for dropout, because of corporal punishment, poor attention towards the students. Most the learners opined that students themselves are in charge of dropout, because fear of teachers; failure in evaluation, mental weaknesses and college students weak in math and English Majority of the parents viewed that father and mother are responsible for dropout of their children as a result of their poverty, illiteracy, unawareness worth focusing on of education;
Following recommendations were made for the improvement of the teaching-learning situation in the primary education establishments. Teachers should show good attitude and very well behave. The government should appoint the skilled teacher and native teachers of the area. Teachers may improve and offer variety of approaches of motivation techniques in various teaching situation. Government should provide full focus on their education program by provides fiscal support to the indegent students in form of scholarship and also authorities should facilitate the teachers and increase their salary.
Keywords: Factors behind Dropout, Primary level, Federal government schools, Teachers; Students, Parents.
Education is a have of every society. The society uses college as its agents of socialization. Pakistan even now behind in the race/ run of education. Pakistan cannot improve his literacy level. Pakistan has among the lowest literacy prices among the Parts of asia (Farooq, 2001). Our educational system of principal and secondary levels is quite high percentage of pupils who dropout before entire a specific cycle. Pakistan is known as second lowest nation among those deemed whose students complete primary education. Superior dropouts mark all degrees of primary education. A reasonably large number of enrolled students at major education never complete the cycle of their education (Rauf, 1996).
According to Aggrwal (2000) Education is a corner stone of development. It’s been proved that education makes a significant and position impact on employment, earning, productivity health insurance and the control over inhabitants growth right now there are among factors behind lower literacy fee. Every authorities made his efforts to promote literacy rate but failed. Theses causes as under.
Poverty, educational facilities, insufficient financing, curriculum, unskilled teachers, standards for admission, approach to teaching, education program, corruption, instability of authorities, dual system of education and political environment etc. It is not a big issue of Pakistan but also a problem of underdeveloped countries (Sultana 1998).According to national education policy (1998-2010), “the current literacy rate around 39% will be raised to 55% through the 1st five years of the insurance plan and 70 percent70 % by the entire year 2010.
Literacy statistics which officially stands set up about 38.9% is contestable authorities of Pakistan declares that people have elevated 12.2% literacy price from 1981 to 1998. What’s even more debatable is the measure use to quality a person as literate one extreme the definition holds that a person who can write his brand is literate (Mahmooda, 1999).
According to national plan (1998) Education is a powerful catalyzing agent which provides mental, physical, ideological and moral training to individual to be able to enable them to have full consciousness of there purpose in existence and equip them to achieve that purpose. It is an instrument for the spiritual advancement along with the material fulfillment of individual needs (Shahid, 1999).
Elementary education may be the earliest software of education, starting generally at age five or six and long lasting from 6 to 8 years. The greatest number of any country population attends the principal stage. This stage is the means where universal gifted children can be located. The elementary level produces the majority of skilled and literate employees and a modern technological society can be developed and maintained only once these competent and literate workers are produced in a sizable numbers and in addition regularly. This stage is vital especially in a democratic contemporary society. A democratic government needs that its citizen ought to be intelligent enough to comprehend the manifestoes of more than a few political celebrations to interpret reports intelligently and critically and cast their vitas relating to their own free choice and will (Rasool, 2000).
Statement of the Problem
The Declaration of the Issue of the study was to discover the sources of dropout at Key level (5th Class) at F.R. Peshawar (Male School) and offer information and suggestion and to remove hurdles on the region.
Objectives of The study
The main goals of the analysis were as follow.
To study teacher complications and attitudes about dropout.
To determine the factors which cause dropout.
Significance of The study
The Significance of the Study is high dropouts mark all levels of main and secondary education. A fairly large numbers of students not complete there education routine. The study has great significant because that provides basic and comprehensive details to assist instructor and educational authority. It provides basic information to the curriculum planner to program the curriculum based on the necessities of teachers and learners. The study provides support for the curriculum planner to get over these causes.
Hypotheses of the study
The formulations of hypothesis were many factors which increasing dropout charge at elementary level. The pupils leave school without completing their education. Therefore following analysis hypothesis occurred.
Students leave school due to poverty.
Many students leave institution because of hard and non versatile curriculum.
Many students leave college due to corporal punishment.
Delimitations of the study
Due to limited time and resources the study was delimited to ten (10) male academic institutions of F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel area.
NATURE OF RESEARCH
It was survey (descriptive) type of research. Researchers survey the federal government schools of F.R. Peshawar and make an effort to determine the main reason behind dropout at 5th course. The level of dropout in the government schools in high this is why, the literacy ratio of the region is quite low. All major/ elementary institutions are in consideration, including 5th class of F.R. Peshawar.
As there are large numbers of schools in F.R. Peshawar, however the researchers limited their analyses to ten (10) picked boys’ academic institutions of F.R. Peshawar, which are located in the region of Asho khel. As the majority of the schools will be out of my selection and it is difficult to attain there.
The following research instruments were employed for collection of data.
teacher of government high school (Male).
Questionnaire-B for parents.
Questionnaire-C for students.
The researcher or started info collection process after three or four days by visiting each sampled institution and administering the questionnaire personally. The researcher recollected the questionnaire from the concern teachers, students and father and mother. The response level was completely.
Then the researcher organized the info in systematic approach and organized the info in the form of table. After the tabulation the researcher analyzed the data, and expressed in percentage.
RESULTS AND DISCUSION
The data collected of ten (10) selected schools of F.R. Peshawar, Asho Khel region, from teachers, students and parents through questionnaires was tabulated, analyzed and described in this article.
There had been three questionnaires for each and every teachers, students and parents. Each questionnaire was given simply two responses “YES” and “NO”. The queries of the questionnaire were tabulated to discover the percentage of the sources of dropout. The researcher employ simple and easy techniques (Percentage, %) to review the behavior and attitude of the respondents.
RESPONSES OF TEACHER, Pupils AND PARENTS
No fully focus of teacher
Having a bad society
Poverty of the parents
Oldest approach to teaching
lack of facilities
Over all response of instructor, students and father and mother are clearly indicate here that in the first of all item results show that no completely attention of the teacher, the above table indicate that 14.28 % of the teachers are agree with this support that “No fully attention of instructor “is the cause of dropout, while in the event of students 85.71% do not agree to it, while student 23.07 % students agree and 76.92% usually do not agree, in case of parents 47.36% happen to be agree while 52.63 % are not agree. The over all 25% decided to it and 75 % did not agree. To be able of “having terrible society”, it suggest that 94.59% of the teachers are concur that having bad society” may be the cause of dropout, in the event of students 5.40% do not consent to it, while students 31.24% agree and 68.75% do not agree, in case of parents 92.59% agree, while 7.40% are not agree. The total 81.25% consent to it and 18.75 % did not agree with the fact. The poverty of the parents draw the picture that 79.41% of the teachers admit that ” the poverty of parents” may be the reason behind dropout, while 20.58% usually do not agree to it, while in the event of students 82.14 % students are agree and 17.85 % aren’t agree, in case of parents 61.11 % agreed, while 38.88 % usually do not agree. The over-all 76.85 % decided to it and 23.75 % didn’t consent. The methodology of teaching is the very first thing which impacts the teaching. The effects demonstrates 60% of the teachers are agree that ” the oldest approach to teaching” is the reason behind dropout, while 40 % do not consent to it, while in the event of students 37.50% college students are agree and 17.85 % are not agree, in the event of father and mother 80.76 % agree, while 19.24 % do not agree. The over-all 60 percent60 % decided to it and 40 % did not agree. Corporal punishment may be the major cause of drop out ratio at main level. It really is clear from the above table that 30 percent30 % of the teachers are consent to the corporal punishment is the reason behind dropout, while 70 percent70 % are not consent to it. while in case of students 74.07 % college students are agree and 25.92 % aren’t agreeing to it. In the event of father and mother 65.21 % will be agree, while 34.79 % are not agree. The over-all 55 % people are agreeing to it and 45% are not agreeing. Moreover having less facilities is the key cause of drop out ratio at major level, which may easily interpret the info in kind of that 76% of the teachers are agree to the view about ” lack of facilities” is the reason behind dropout, while 24% aren’t consent to it while in case of students 60.60 %60 % students aren’t consent to it and 39.40 % aren’t agree. In case of parents 68.18 % are consent to it, while 31.82 % are not agree. The over-all 67.50 % persons are consent to it and 32.50 % are not agree
After finding the researcher made the next conclusion by deep research, about the male student’s dropout at elementary level (Male) in F.R. Peshawar.
The teachers, college students and parents were of the view that the challenge of dropout was due to
Majority of the teachers seen that teachers were in charge of dropout, because of corporal punishment, poor interest towards the students. Unaware ness could cause the dropout of the students.
Majority of the college students opined that learners themselves are accountable for dropout, because fear of teachers; failure in exam, mental weaknesses and learners weak in mathematics and English and over performing is a cause of dropout.
Majority of the father and mother viewed that father and mother are responsible for dropout of their kids as a result of their poverty, illiteracy, unawareness worth focusing on of education; having no dad at home and no fully control on children are the reason behind dropout, which may be the responsibility of parents.
After conclusion the researcher made the next recommendation for the betterment of learners of dropout at elementary level at F.R. Peshawar Asho Khel. The advice are as under.
The study effects revealed that teachers had been responsible for dropout because of corporal punishment. It is strongly recommended that teachers should demonstrate fair attitude and very well behave. The federal government should appoint the talented teacher and local teachers of the area.
The study outcomes showed that teachers were responsible for dropout because of poor interest towards the students. It is therefore recommended that teachers should provide fully focus on the students by giving incentives such as reward. . Teachers may improve and offer variety of approaches of motivation tactics in several teaching situation.
The study outcomes revealed that learners were self-in charge for dropout because of cause of concern with teachers; failure in exam, mental weaknesses and learners weak in mathematics and English. It is recommended that teachers should provide awareness about education to their learners by develop faith and confidence. Teachers should provide calm atmosphere.
Dr. Muhammad Naseer-Ud-Din is usually working as an Assistant Professor in Institute of Education and Research, Kohat University of Research and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan. He do his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Exploration, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Ali Murtaza is usually working as an Associate Professor Preston University Islamabad, Pakistan. He have his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Analysis, UAAR, Pakistan.
DrHafiz HameedUllah is working as an Associate Professor, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.. He have his Ph.D. in Education from University Institute of Education and Analysis, UAAR, Pakistan.
Dr. Sajjad Hayat Akhtar is certainly operating as an teachers Division of Education, Govt. of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. He do his Ph.D. in Education from University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan.
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